BAL-002-1: Disturbance Control Performance
The purpose of the Disturbance Control Standard (DCS) is to ensure the Balancing Authority is able to utilize its Contingency Reserve to balance resources and demand and return Interconnection frequency within defined limits following a Reportable Disturbance. Because generator failures are far more common than significant losses of load and because Contingency Reserve activation does not typically apply to the loss of load, the application of DCS is limited to the loss of supply and does not apply to the loss of load.
- Balancing Authorities
- Reserve Sharing Groups (Balancing Authorities may meet the requirements of Standard 002 through participation in a Reserve Sharing Group.)
- Regional Reliability Organizations
The first day of the first calendar quarter, one year after applicable regulatory approval; or in those jurisdictions where no regulatory approval is required, the first day of the first calendar quarter one year after Board of Trustees’ adoption.
R1. Each Balancing Authority shall have access to and/or operate Contingency Reserve to respond to Disturbances. Contingency Reserve may be supplied from generation, controllable load resources, or coordinated adjustments to Interchange Schedules.
R1.1. A Balancing Authority may elect to fulfill its Contingency Reserve obligations by participating as a member of a Reserve Sharing Group. In such cases, the Reserve Sharing Group shall have the same responsibilities and obligations as each Balancing Authority with respect to monitoring and meeting the requirements of Standard BAL-002.
R2. Each Regional Reliability Organization, sub-Regional Reliability Organization or Reserve Sharing Group shall specify its Contingency Reserve policies, including:
R2.1. The minimum reserve requirement for the group.
R2.2. Its allocation among members.
R2.3. The permissible mix of Operating Reserve – Spinning and Operating Reserve – Supplemental that may be included in Contingency Reserve.
R2.4. The procedure for applying Contingency Reserve in practice.
R2.5. The limitations, if any, upon the amount of interruptible load that may be included.
R2.6. The same portion of resource capacity (e.g. reserves from jointly owned generation) shall not be counted more than once as Contingency Reserve by multiple Balancing Authorities.
R3. Each Balancing Authority or Reserve Sharing Group shall activate sufficient Contingency Reserve to comply with the DCS.
R3.1. As a minimum, the Balancing Authority or Reserve Sharing Group shall carry at least enough Contingency Reserve to cover the most severe single contingency. All Balancing Authorities and Reserve Sharing Groups shall review, no less frequently than annually, their probable contingencies to determine their prospective most severe single contingencies.
R4. A Balancing Authority or Reserve Sharing Group shall meet the Disturbance Recovery Criterion within the Disturbance Recovery Period for 100% of Reportable Disturbances. The Disturbance Recovery Criterion is:
R4.1. A Balancing Authority shall return its ACE to zero if its ACE just prior to the Reportable Disturbance was positive or equal to zero. For negative initial ACE values just prior to the Disturbance, the Balancing Authority shall return ACE to its preDisturbance value.
R4.2. The default Disturbance Recovery Period is 15 minutes after the start of a Reportable Disturbance.
R5. Each Reserve Sharing Group shall comply with the DCS. A Reserve Sharing Group shall be considered in a Reportable Disturbance condition whenever a group member has experienced a Reportable Disturbance and calls for the activation of Contingency Reserves from one or more other group members. (If a group member has experienced a Reportable Disturbance but does not call for reserve activation from other members of the Reserve Sharing Group, then that member shall report as a single Balancing Authority.) Compliance may be demonstrated by either of the following two methods:
R5.1. The Reserve Sharing Group reviews group ACE (or equivalent) and demonstrates compliance to the DCS. To be in compliance, the group ACE (or its equivalent) must meet the Disturbance Recovery Criterion after the schedule change(s) related to reserve sharing have been fully implemented, and within the Disturbance Recovery Period.
R5.2. The Reserve Sharing Group reviews each member’s ACE in response to the activation of reserves. To be in compliance, a member’s ACE (or its equivalent) must meet the Disturbance Recovery Criterion after the schedule change(s) related to reserve sharing have been fully implemented, and within the Disturbance Recovery Period.
R6. A Balancing Authority or Reserve Sharing Group shall fully restore its Contingency Reserves within the Contingency Reserve Restoration Period for its Interconnection.
R6.1. The Contingency Reserve Restoration Period begins at the end of the Disturbance Recovery Period.
R6.2. The default Contingency Reserve Restoration Period is 90 minutes.
M1. A Balancing Authority or Reserve Sharing Group shall calculate and report compliance with the Disturbance Control Standard for all Disturbances greater than or equal to 80% of the magnitude of the Balancing Authority’s or of the Reserve Sharing Group’s most severe single contingency loss. Regions may, at their discretion, require a lower reporting threshold. Disturbance Control Standard is measured as the percentage recovery (Ri).
The Balancing Authority or Reserve Sharing Group shall record the MWLOSS value as measured at the site of the loss to the extent possible. The value should not be measured as a change in ACE since governor response and AGC response may introduce error.
The Balancing Authority or Reserve Sharing Group shall base the value for ACEA on the average ACE over the period just prior to the start of the Disturbance (10 and 60 seconds prior and including at least 4 scans of ACE). In the illustration below, the horizontal line represents an averaging of ACE for 15 seconds prior to the start of the Disturbance with a result of ACEA = – 25 MW.
The average percent recovery is the arithmetic average of all the calculated Ri’s for Reportable Disturbances during a given quarter. Average percent recovery is similarly calculated for excludable Disturbances.