# BAL-001-1: Real Power Balancing Control Performance

**Purpose**

To maintain Interconnection steady-state frequency within defined limits by balancing real power demand and supply in real-time.

**Applicability**

Balancing Authorities

**Effective Date**

The WECC Regional Variance to NERC Reliability Standard BAL-001-1 is to be effective on the first day of the second quarter, after regulatory approval.

**Requirements**

**R1**. Each Balancing Authority shall operate such that, on a rolling 12-month basis, the average of the clock-minute averages of the Balancing Authority’s Area Control Error (ACE) divided by 10Β (Β is the clock-minute average of the Balancing Authority Area’s Frequency Bias) times the corresponding clock-minute averages of the Interconnection’s Frequency Error is less than a specific limit. This limit ∈_{1}^{2} is a constant derived from a targeted frequency bound (separately calculated for each Interconnection) that is reviewed and set as necessary by the NERC Operating Committee.

**R2.** Each Balancing Authority shall operate such that its average ACE for at least 90% of clockten-minute periods (6 non-overlapping periods per hour) during a calendar month is within a specific limit, referred to as L_{10}.

∈_{10} is a constant derived from the targeted frequency bound. It is the targeted root-mean-square (RMS) value of ten-minute average Frequency Error based on frequency performance over a 10 given year. The bound, ∈_{10} , is the same for every Balancing Authority Area within an Interconnection, and Β_{s} is the sum of the Frequency Bias Settings of the Balancing Authority Areas in the respective Interconnection. For Balancing Authority Areas with variable bias, this is equal to the sum of the minimum Frequency Bias Settings.

**R3**. Each Balancing Authority providing Overlap Regulation Service shall evaluate Requirement R1 (i.e., Control Performance Standard 1 or CPS1) and Requirement R2 (i.e., Control Performance Standard 2 or CPS2) using the characteristics of the combined ACE and combined Frequency Bias Settings.

**R4. **Any Balancing Authority receiving Overlap Regulation Service shall not have its control performance evaluated (i.e. from a control performance perspective, the Balancing Authority has shifted all control requirements to the Balancing Authority providing Overlap Regulation Service).

**Measures**

**M1. **Each Balancing Authority shall achieve, as a minimum, Requirement 1 (CPS1) compliance of 100%.

CPS1 is calculated by converting a compliance ratio to a compliance percentage as follows:

CPS1 = (2 – CF) * 100%

The frequency-related compliance factor, CF, is a ratio of all one-minute compliance parameters accumulated over 12 months divided by the target frequency bound:

The rating index CF_{12-month} is derived from 12 months of data. The basic unit of data comes from one-minute averages of ACE, Frequency Error and Frequency Bias Settings.

A clock-minute average is the average of the reporting Balancing Authority’s valid measured variable (i.e., for ACE and for Frequency Error) for each sampling cycle during a given clock-minute.

Normally, sixty (60) clock-minute averages of the reporting Balancing Authority’s ACE and of the respective Interconnection’s Frequency Error will be used to compute the respective hourly average compliance parameter.

The reporting Balancing Authority shall be able to recalculate and store each of the respective clock-hour averages (CF clock-hour average-month) as well as the respective number of samples for each of the twenty-four (24) hours (one for each clock-hour, i.e., hour-ending (HE) 0100, HE 0200, …, HE 2400).

In order to ensure that the average ACE and Frequency Deviation calculated for any one-minute interval is representative of that one-minute interval, it is necessary that at least 50% of both ACE and Frequency Deviation samples during that one-minute interval be present. Should a sustained interruption in the recording of ACE or Frequency Deviation due to loss of telemetering or computer unavailability result in a one-minute interval not containing at least 50% of samples of both ACE and Frequency Deviation, that one-minute interval shall be excluded from the calculation of CPS1.

**M2. **Each Balancing Authority shall achieve, as a minimum, Requirement R2 (CPS2) compliance of 90%. CPS2 relates to a bound on the ten-minute average of ACE. A compliance percentage is calculated as follows:

The violations per month are a count of the number of periods that ACE clock-ten-minutes exceeded L_{10} . ACE clock-ten-minutes is the sum of valid ACE samples within a clock-ten- minute period divided by the number of valid samples.

Each Balancing Authority shall report the total number of violations and unavailable periods for the month. L_{10} is defined in Requirement R2.

Since CPS2 requires that ACE be averaged over a discrete time period, the same factors that 10 limit total periods per month will limit violations per month. The calculation of total periods per month and violations per month, therefore, must be discussed jointly.

A condition may arise which may impact the normal calculation of total periods per month and violations per month. This condition is a sustained interruption in the recording of ACE.

In order to ensure that the average ACE calculated for any ten-minute interval is representative of that ten-minute interval, it is necessary that at least half the ACE data samples are present for that interval. Should half or more of the ACE data be unavailable due to loss of telemetering or computer unavailability, that ten-minute interval shall be omitted from the calculation of CPS2.