TPL-001-4: Transmission System Planning Performance Requirements

Purpose

Establish Transmission system planning performance requirements within the planning horizon to develop a Bulk Electric System (BES) that will operate reliably over a broad spectrum of System conditions and following a wide range of probable Contingencies.

Applicability

  • Planning Coordinator
  • Transmission Planner

Effective Date
Requirements R1 and R7 as well as the definitions shall become effective on the first day of the first calendar quarter, 12 months after applicable regulatory approval. In those jurisdictions where regulatory approval is not required, Requirements R1 and R7 become effective on the first day of the first calendar quarter, 12 months after Board of Trustees adoption or as otherwise made effective pursuant to the laws applicable to such ERO governmental authorities.

Except as indicated below, Requirements R2 through R6 and Requirement R8 shall become effective on the first day of the first calendar quarter, 24 months after applicable regulatory approval. In those jurisdictions where regulatory approval is not required, all requirements, except as noted below, go into effect on the first day of the first calendar quarter, 24 months after Board of Trustees adoption or as otherwise made effective pursuant to the laws applicable to such ERO governmental authorities.

For 84 calendar months beginning the first day of the first calendar quarter following applicable regulatory approval, or in those jurisdictions where regulatory approval is not required on the first day of the first calendar quarter 84 months after Board of Trustees adoption or as otherwise made effective pursuant to the laws applicable to such ERO governmental authorities, Corrective Action Plans applying to the following categories of Contingencies and events identified in TPL-001-4, Table 1 are allowed to include Non-Consequential Load Loss and curtailment of Firm Transmission Service (in accordance with Requirement R2, Part 2.7.3.) that would not otherwise be permitted by the requirements of TPL-001-4:

  • P1-2 (for controlled interruption of electric supply to local network customersP1-3 (for controlled interruption of electric supply to local network customers connected to or supplied by the Faulted element)
  •  P2-1
  •  P2-2 (above 300 kV)
  •  P2-3 (above 300 kV)
  •  P3-1 through P3-5
  •  P4-1 through P4-5 (above 300 kV)
  •  P5 (above 300 kV)

Requirements
R1. Each Transmission Planner and Planning Coordinator shall maintain System models within its respective area for performing the studies needed to complete its Planning Assessment. The models shall use data consistent with that provided in accordance with the MOD-010 and MOD-012 standards, supplemented by other sources as needed, including items represented in the Corrective Action Plan, and shall represent projected System conditions. This establishes Category P0 as the normal System condition in Table 1. [Violation Risk Factor: High] [Time Horizon: Long-term Planning]

1.1. System models shall represent:

1.1.1. Existing Facilities
1.1.2. Known outage(s) of generation or Transmission Facility(ies) with a duration
of at least six months.
1.1.3. New planned Facilities and changes to existing Facilities
1.1.4. Real and reactive Load forecasts
1.1.5. Known commitments for Firm Transmission Service and Interchange
1.1.6. Resources (supply or demand side) required for Load

R2. Each Transmission Planner and Planning Coordinator shall prepare an annual Planning Assessment of its portion of the BES. This Planning Assessment shall use current or qualified past studies (as indicated in Requirement R2, Part 2.6), document assumptions, and document summarized results of the steady state analyses, short circuit analyses, and Stability analyses. [Violation Risk Factor: High] [Time Horizon: Long-term Planning]

2.1. For the Planning Assessment, the Near-Term Transmission Planning Horizon portion of the steady state analysis shall be assessed annually and be supported by current annual studies or quaified past studies as indicated in Requirement R2, Part 2.6. Qualifying studies need to include the following conditions:

2.1.1. System peak Load for either Year One or year two, and for year five.
2.1.2. System Off-Peak Load for one of the five years.
2.1.3. P1 events in Table 1, with known outages modeled as in Requirement R1, Part 1.1.2, under those System peak or Off-Peak conditions when known outages are scheduled.
2.1.4. For each of the studies described in Requirement R2, Parts 2.1.1 and 2.1.2, sensitivity case(s) shall be utilized to demonstrate the impact of changes to the basic assumptions used in the model. To accomplish this, the sensitivity  analysis in the Planning Assessment must vary one or more of the following conditions by a sufficient amount to stress the System within a range of credible conditions that demonstrate a measurable change in System response:

  • Real and reactive forecasted Load.
  • Expected transfers.
  • Expected in service dates of new or modified Transmission Facilities.
  • Reactive resource capability.
  • Generation additions, retirements, or other dispatch scenarios.
  • Standard TPL-001-4 — Transmission System Planning Performance Requirements
  • Controllable Loads and Demand Side Management.
  • Duration or timing of known Transmission outages.

2.1.5. When an entity’s spare equipment strategy could result in the unavailability of major Transmission equipment that has a lead time of one year or more (such as a transformer), the impact of this possible unavailability on System performance shall be studied. The studies shall be performed for the P0, P1, and P2 categories identified in Table 1 with the conditions that the System is expected to experience during the possible unavailability of the long lead time equipment.

2.2. For the Planning Assessment, the Long-Term Transmission Planning Horizon portion of the steady state analysis shall be assessed annually and be supported by the following annual current study, supplemented with qualified past studies as indicated in Requirement R2, Part 2.6:

2.2.1. A current study assessing expected System peak Load conditions for one of the years in the Long-Term Transmission Planning Horizon and the rationale for why that year was selected.

2.3. The short circuit analysis portion of the Planning Assessment shall be conducted annually addressing the Near-Term Transmission Planning Horizon and can be supported by current or past studies as qualified in Requirement R2, Part 2.6. The analysis shall be used to determine whether circuit breakers have interrupting capability for Faults that they will be expected to interrupt using the System short circuit model with any planned generation and Transmission Facilities in service which could impact the study area.

2.4. For the Planning Assessment, the Near-Term Transmission Planning Horizon portion of the Stability analysis shall be assessed annually and be supported by current or past studies as qualified in Requirement R2, Part2.6. The following studies are required:

2.4.1. System peak Load for one of the five years. System peak Load levels shall include a Load model which represents the expected dynamic behavior of Loads that could impact the study area, considering the behavior of induction motor Loads. An aggregate System Load model which represents the overall dynamic behavior of the Load is acceptable.

2.4.2. System Off-Peak Load for one of the five years.

2.4.3. For each of the studies described in Requirement R2, Parts 2.4.1 and 2.4.2, sensitivity case(s) shall be utilized to demonstrate the impact of changes to the basic assumptions used in the model. To accomplish this, the sensitivity analysis in the Planning Assessment must vary one or more of the following conditions by a sufficient amount to stress the System within a range of credible conditions that demonstrate a measurable change in performance:

  • Load level, Load forecast, or dynamic Load model assumptions.
  • Expected transfers.
  • Expected in service dates of new or modified Transmission Facilities.
  • Reactive resource capability.
  • Generation additions, retirements, or other dispatch scenarios.

 2.5. For the Planning Assessment, the Long-Term Transmission Planning Horizon portion of the Stability analysis shall be assessed to address the impact of proposed material generation additions or changes in that timeframe and be supported by current or past studies as qualified in Requirement R2, Part2.6 and shall include documentation to support the technical rationale for determining material changes.

2.6. Past studies may be used to support the Planning Assessment if they meet the following requirements:

2.6.1. For steady state, short circuit, or Stability analysis: the study shall be five calendar years old or less, unless a technical rationale can be provided to demonstrate that the results of an older study are still valid.

2.6.2. For steady state, short circuit, or Stability analysis: no material changes have occurred to the System represented in the study. Documentation to support the technical rationale for determining material changes shall be included.

2.7. For planning events shown in Table 1, when the analysis indicates an inability of the System to meet the performance requirements in Table 1, the Planning Assessment shall include Corrective Action Plan(s) addressing how the performance requirements will be met. Revisions to the Corrective Action Plan(s) are allowed in subsequent Planning Assessments but the planned System shall continue to meet the performance requirements in Table 1. Corrective Action Plan(s) do not need to be developed solely to meet the performance requirements for a single sensitivity case analyzed in accordance with Requirements R2, Parts 2.1.4 and 2.4.3. The Corrective Action Plan(s) shall:

2.7.1. List System deficiencies and the associated actions needed to achieve required System performance. Examples of such actions include:

  • Installation, modification, retirement, or removal of Transmission and generation Facilities and any associated equipment.
  • Installation, modification, or removal of Protection Systems or Special Protection Systems
  • Installation or modification of automatic generation tripping as a response to a single or multiple Contingency to mitigate Stability performance violations.
  • Installation or modification of manual and automatic generation runback/tripping as a response to a single or multiple Contingency to mitigate steady state performance violations.
  • Use of Operating Procedures specifying how long they will be needed as part of the Corrective Action Plan.
  • Use of rate applications, DSM, new technologies, or other initiatives.

2.7.2. Include actions to resolve performance deficiencies identified in multiple sensitivity studies or provide a rationale for why actions were not necessary.

2.7.3. If situations arise that are beyond the control of the Transmission Planner or Planning Coordinator that prevent the implementation of a Corrective Action Plan in the required timeframe, then the Transmission Planner or Planning Coordinator is permitted to utilize Non-Consequential Load Loss and curtailment of Firm Transmission Service to correct the situation that would normally not be permitted in Table 1, provided that the Transmission Planner or Planning Coordinator documents that they are taking actions to resolve the situation. The Transmission Planner or Planning Coordinator shall document the situation causing the problem, alternatives evaluated, and the use of Non-Consequential Load Loss or curtailment of Firm Transmission Service.

2.7.4. Be reviewed in subsequent annual Planning Assessments for continued validity and implementation status of identified System Facilities and Operating Procedures.

2.8. For short circuit analysis, if the short circuit current interrupting duty on circuit breakers determined in Requirement R2, Part 2.3 exceeds their Equipment Rating, the Planning Assessment shall include a Corrective Action Plan to address the Equipment Rating violations. The Corrective Action Plan shall:

2.8.1. List System deficiencies and the associated actions needed to achieve required System performance.

2.8.2. Be reviewed in subsequent annual Planning Assessments for continued validity and implementation status of identified System Facilities and Operating Procedures.

R3. For the steady state portion of the Planning Assessment, each Transmission Planner and Planning Coordinator shall perform studies for the Near-Term and Long-Term Transmission Planning Horizons in Requirement R2, Parts 2.1, and 2.2. The studies shall be based on computer simulation models using data provided in Requirement R1. [Violation Risk Factor: Medium] [Time Horizon: Long-term Planning]

3.1. Studies shall be performed for planning events to determine whether the BES meets the performance requirements in Table 1 based on the Contingency list created in Requirement R3, Part 3.4.

3.2. Studies shall be performed to assess the impact of the extreme events which are identified by the list created in Requirement R3, Part 3.5.

3.3. Contingency analyses for Requirement R3, Parts 3.1 & 3.2 shall:

3.3.1. Simulate the removal of all elements that the Protection System and other
automatic controls are expected to disconnect for each Contingency without
operator intervention. The analyses shall include the impact of subsequent:

3.3.1.1. Tripping of generators where simulations show generator bus voltages or high side of the generation step up (GSU) voltages are less than known or assumed minimum generator steady state or ride through voltage limitations. Include in the assessment any assumptions made.

3.3.1.2. Tripping of Transmission elements where relay loadability limits are exceeded.

3.3.2. Simulate the expected automatic operation of existing and planned devices designed to provide steady state control of electrical system quantities when such devices impact the study area. These devices may include equipment such as phase-shifting transformers, load tap changing transformers, and switched capacitors and inductors.

3.4. Those planning events in Table 1, that are expected to produce more severe System
impacts on its portion of the BES, shall be identified and a list of those Contingencies to be evaluated for System performance in Requirement R3, Part 3.1 created. The  rationale for those Contingencies selected for evaluation shall be available as supporting information.

3.4.1. The Planning Coordinator and Transmission Planner shall coordinate with adjacent Planning Coordinators and Transmission Planners to ensure that Contingencies on adjacent Systems which may impact their Systems are included in the Contingency list.

3.5. Those extreme events in Table 1 that are expected to produce more severe System impacts shall be identified and a list created of those events to be evaluated in Requirement R3, Part 3.2. The rationale for those Contingencies selected for evaluation shall be available as supporting information. If the analysis concludes there is Cascading caused by the occurrence of extreme events, an evaluation of possible actions designed to reduce the likelihood or mitigate the consequences and adverse impacts of the event(s) shall be conducted.

R4. For the Stability portion of the Planning Assessment, as described in Requirement R2, Parts 2.4 and 2.5, each Transmission Planner and Planning Coordinator shall perform the Contingency analyses listed in Table 1. The studies shall be based on computer simulation models using data provided in Requirement R1. [Violation Risk Factor: Medium] [Time Horizon: Longterm Planning]

4.1. Studies shall be performed for planning events to determine whether the BES meets the performance requirements in Table 1 based on the Contingency list created in Requirement R4, Part 4.4.

4.1.1. For planning event P1: No generating unit shall pull out of synchronism. A generator being disconnected from the System by fault clearing action or by a Special Protection System is not considered pulling out of synchronism.

4.1.2. For planning events P2 through P7: When a generator pulls out of synchronism in the simulations, the resulting apparent impedance swings shall not result in the tripping of any Transmission system elements other than the generating unit and its directly connected Facilities.

4.1.3. For planning events P1 through P7: Power oscillations shall exhibit acceptable damping as established by the Planning Coordinator and Transmission Planner.

4.2. Studies shall be performed to assess the impact of the extreme events which are identified by the list created in Requirement R4, Part 4.5.

4.3. Contingency analyses for Requirement R4, Parts 4.1 and 4.2 shall:

4.3.1. Simulate the removal of all elements that the Protection System and other automatic controls are expected to disconnect for each Contingency without operator intervention. The analyses shall include the impact of subsequent:

4.3.1.1. Successful high speed (less than one second) reclosing and unsuccessful high speed reclosing into a Fault where high speed reclosing is utilized.

4.3.1.2. Tripping of generators where simulations show generator bus voltages or high side of the GSU voltages are less than known or assumed generator low voltage ride through capability. Include in the assessment any assumptions made.

4.3.1.3. Tripping of Transmission lines and transformers where transient swings cause Protection System operation based on generic or actual relay models.

4.3.2. Simulate the expected automatic operation of existing and planned devices designed to provide dynamic control of electrical system quantities when such devices impact the study area. These devices may include equipment such as generation exciter control and power system stabilizers, static var compensators, power flow controllers, and DC Transmission controllers.

4.4. Those planning events in Table 1 that are expected to produce more severe System impacts on its portion of the BES, shall be identified, and a list created of those Contingencies to be evaluated in Requirement R4, Part 4.1. The rationale for those Contingencies selected for evaluation shall be available as supporting information.

4.4.1. Each Planning Coordinator and Transmission Planner shall coordinate with adjacent Planning Coordinators and Transmission Planners to ensure that Contingencies on adjacent Systems which may impact their Systems are included in the Contingency list.

4.5. Those extreme events in Table 1 that are expected to produce more severe System impacts shall be identified and a list created of those events to be evaluated in Requirement R4, Part 4.2. The rationale for those Contingencies selected for evaluation shall be available as supporting information. If the analysis concludes there is Cascading caused by the occurrence of extreme events, an evaluation of
possible actions designed to reduce the likelihood or mitigate the consequences of the event(s) shall be conducted.

R5. Each Transmission Planner and Planning Coordinator shall have criteria for acceptable System steady state voltage limits, post-Contingency voltage deviations, and the transient voltage response for its System. For transient voltage response, the criteria shall at a minimum, specify a low voltage level and a maximum length of time that transient voltages may remain below that level. [Violation Risk Factor: Medium] [Time Horizon: Long-term Planning]

R6. Each Transmission Planner and Planning Coordinator shall define and document, within their Planning Assessment, the criteria or methodology used in the analysis to identify System instability for conditions such as Cascading, voltage instability, or uncontrolled islanding. [Violation Risk Factor: Medium] [Time Horizon: Long-term Planning]

R7. Each Planning Coordinator, in conjunction with each of its Transmission Planners, shall determine and identify each entity’s individual and joint responsibilities for performing the required studies for the Planning Assessment. [Violation Risk Factor: Low] [Time Horizon: Long-term Planning]

R8. Each Planning Coordinator and Transmission Planner shall distribute its Planning Assessment results to adjacent Planning Coordinators and adjacent Transmission Planners within 90 calendar days of completing its Planning Assessment, and to any functional entity that has a reliability related need and submits a written request for the information within 30 days of such a request. [Violation Risk Factor: Medium] [Time Horizon: Long-term Planning]

8.1. If a recipient of the Planning Assessment results provides documented comments on the results, the respective Planning Coordinator or Transmission Planner shall provide a documented response to that recipient within 90 calendar days of receipt of those comments.


 

Table 1 – Steady State & Stability Performance Planning Events

Steady State & Stability:

a. The System shall remain stable. Cascading and uncontrolled islanding shall not occur.
b. Consequential Load Loss as well as generation loss is acceptable as a consequence of any event excluding P0.
c. Simulate the removal of all elements that Protection Systems and other controls are expected to automatically disconnect for each event.
d. Simulate Normal Clearing unless otherwise specified.
e. Planned System adjustments such as Transmission configuration changes and re-dispatch of generation are allowed if such adjustments are executable within the time duration applicable to the Facility Ratings.

Steady State Only:

f. Applicable Facility Ratings shall not be exceeded.
g. System steady state voltages and post-Contingency voltage deviations shall be within acceptable limits as established by the Planning Coordinator and the Transmission Planner.
h. Planning event P0 is applicable to steady state only.
i. The response of voltage sensitive Load that is disconnected from the System by end-user equipment associated with an event shall not be used to meet steady state performance requirements.

Stability Only:

j. Transient voltage response shall be within acceptable limits established by the Planning Coordinator and the Transmission Planner

TPL-001-4-table1

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Table 1 – Steady State & Stability Performance Extreme Events

Steady State & Stability

For all extreme events evaluated:

a. Simulate the removal of all elements that Protection Systems and automatic controls are expected to disconnect for each Contingency.

b. Simulate Normal Clearing unless otherwise specified.

Steady State

1. Loss of a single generator, Transmission Circuit, single pole of a DC Line, shunt device, or transformer forced out of service followed by another single generator, Transmission Circuit, single pole of a different DC Line, shunt device, or transformer forced out of service prior to System adjustments.

2. Local area events affecting the Transmission System such as:

a. Loss of a tower line with three or more circuits.11

b. Loss of all Transmission lines on a common Right-of-Way11

c. Loss of a switching station or substation (loss of one voltage level plus transformers).

d. Loss of all generating units at a generating station.

e. Loss of a large Load or major Load center.

3. Wide area events affecting the Transmission System based on System topology such as:

a. Loss of two generating stations resulting from conditions such as:

i. Loss of a large gas pipeline into a region or multiple regions that have significant gas-fired generation.

ii. Loss of the use of a large body of water as the cooling source for generation.

iii. Wildfires.

iv. Severe weather, e.g., hurricanes, tornadoes, etc.

v. A successful cyber attack.

vi. Shutdown of a nuclear power plant(s) and related facilities for a day or more for common causes such as problems with similarly designed plants.

b. Other events based upon operating experience that may result in wide area disturbances.

Stability

1. With an initial condition of a single generator, Transmission circuit, single pole of a DC line, shunt device, or transformer forced out of service, apply a 3Ø fault on another single generator, Transmission circuit, single pole of a different DC line, shunt device, or transformer prior to System adjustments.

2. Local or wide area events affecting the Transmission System such as:

a. 3Ø fault on generator with stuck breaker10 or a relay failure13 resulting in Delayed Fault Clearing.

b. 3Ø fault on Transmission circuit with stuck breaker10 or a relay failure13 resulting in Delayed Fault Clearing.

c. 3Ø fault on transformer with stuck breaker10 or a relay failure13 resulting in Delayed Fault Clearing.

d. 3Ø fault on bus section with stuck breaker10 or a relay failure13 resulting in Delayed Fault Clearing.

e. 3Ø internal breaker fault.

f. Other events based upon operating experience, such as consideration of initiating events that experience suggests may result in wide area disturbances


Table 1 – Steady State & Stability Performance Footnotes (Planning Events and Extreme Events)

1. If the event analyzed involves BES elements at multiple System voltage levels, the lowest System voltage level of the element(s) removed for the analyzed event determines the stated performance criteria regarding allowances for interruptions of Firm Transmission Service and Non-Consequential Load Loss.

2. Unless specified otherwise, simulate Normal Clearing of faults. Single line to ground (SLG) or three-phase (3Ø) are the fault types that must be evaluated in Stability simulations for the event described. A 3Ø or a double line to ground fault study indicating the criteria are being met is sufficient evidence that a SLG condition would also meet the criteria.

3. Bulk Electric System (BES) level references include extra-high voltage (EHV) Facilities defined as greater than 300kV and high voltage (HV) Facilities defined as the 300kV and lower voltage Systems. The designation of EHV and HV is used to distinguish between stated performance criteria allowances for interruption of Firm Transmission Service and Non-Consequential Load Loss.

4. Curtailment of Conditional Firm Transmission Service is allowed when the conditions and/or events being studied formed the basis for the Conditional Firm Transmission Service.

5. For non-generator step up transformer outage events, the reference voltage, as used in footnote 1, applies to the low-side winding (excluding tertiary windings). For generator and Generator Step Up transformer outage events, the reference voltage applies to the BES connected voltage (high-side of the Generator Step Up transformer). Requirements which are applicable to transformers also apply to variable frequency transformers and phase shifting transformers.

6. Requirements which are applicable to shunt devices also apply to FACTS devices that are connected to ground.

7. Opening one end of a line section without a fault on a normally networked Transmission circuit such that the line is possibly serving Load radial from a single source point.

8. An internal breaker fault means a breaker failing internally, thus creating a System fault which must be cleared by protection on both sides of the breaker.

9. An objective of the planning process should be to minimize the likelihood and magnitude of interruption of Firm Transmission Service following Contingency events. Curtailment of Firm Transmission Service is allowed both as a System adjustment (as identified in the column entitled ‘Initial Condition’) and a corrective action when achieved through the appropriate re-dispatch of resources obligated to re-dispatch, where it can be demonstrated that Facilities, internal and external to the Transmission Planner’s planning region, remain within applicable Facility Ratings and the re-dispatch does not result in any NonConsequential Load Loss. Where limited options for re-dispatch exist, sensitivities associated with the availability of those resources should be considered.

10. A stuck breaker means that for a gang-operated breaker, all three phases of the breaker have remained closed. For an independent pole operated (IPO) or an independent pole tripping (IPT) breaker, only one pole is assumed to remain closed. A stuck breaker results in Delayed Fault Clearing.

11. Excludes circuits that share a common structure (Planning event P7, Extreme event steady state 2a) or common Right-of-Way (Extreme event, steady state 2b) for 1 mile or less.

12. An objective of the planning process is to minimize the likelihood and magnitude of Non-Consequential Load Loss following planning events. In limited circumstances, Non-Consequential Load Loss may be needed throughout the planning horizon to ensure that BES performance requirements are met. However, when Non-Consequential Load Loss is utilized under footnote 12 within the Near-Term Transmission Planning Horizon to address BES performance requirements, such interruption is limited to circumstances where the Non-Consequential Load Loss meets the conditions shown in Attachment 1. In no case can the planned Non-Consequential Load Loss under footnote 12 exceed 75 MW for US registered entities. The amount of planned NonConsequential Load Loss for a non-US Registered Entity should be implemented in a manner that is consistent with, or under the direction of, the applicable governmental authority or its agency in the non-US jurisdiction.

13. Applies to the following relay functions or types: pilot (#85), distance (#21), differential (#87), current (#50, 51, and 67), voltage (#27 & 59), directional (#32, & 67), and tripping (#86, & 94).


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